De San Juan, Ms. Kiwan and to Mr. Carocci for the preparation of the final version of the text and of the mapping material. This Technical Paper materializes, as probably other Papers do, from the topicality of several convergent processes and needs. Thus, the authors recognise that a series of strands of human progressive processes have reached a current developmental point such that they can now be unified, with the purpose of bringing about positive gains in the field of fisheries management.
We can briefly allude to these processes and needs.
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With fishing effort increasing, including technological improvements and applications, then there must be some doubt as to whether present catch rates can be maintained. This has been particularly noticed since the Rio de Janeiro Summit of , and with the subsequent promotion of its Agenda 21, which aims to promote environmental consciousness upwards from a local level. This is to be seen in the setting up of a range of authorities, pressure groups and government organisations at all levels, which are directed towards the environment, conservation, enhancement and protection.
One manifestation of this has been in the emergence of Geographical Information Systems GIS , with their capability of offering a tool for the varied management of all problems having a spatial connotation.
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Their worth is now being amply demonstrated in a wide variety of fields. One of their main strengths lies in the recognition that spatial visualization is of major importance in the armoury of ways in which humans can best acquire information. Digital technology has developed, and the world is accumulating, by various means, vast databases of potentially useful data. With this explosion has come dramatic data price reductions and processing efficiencies. So we would argue that the substance of what is presented in this Paper is the result of the merging of these five strands of human progression.
Since each of these strands is so broad, then potentially the Paper might have a very wide audience among conservationists, ecologists, managers, geographers, etc, and we would hope that this should be the case.
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) | In-Service ICT Training for Environmental Professionals
Realistically however, the Paper is most likely to be of interest to a more specific audience. Now that GIS has been shown to be a success in a variety of fields, then there must be a range of personnel who work in various fisheries fields who might wish to find out about its functionality. They might be working in fisheries research, fisheries management or in fisheries education, and this Technical Paper is aimed mainly at this audience. We believe that the content should be understood by readers at a variety of educational levels, though generally it is pitched at undergraduate level.
We have been extremely conscious when assembling the contents, that the fields of both marine fisheries and GIS are varied and to an extent complex. What this volume does therefore is to set out, in as straight-forward a way as possible, all the fundamentals and the potential that GIS has to offer in the marine fisheries field, i.
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There are certain more peripheral areas of GIS which we have deliberately not pursued in detail, either because they are exceptionally complex or because they are areas which might apply to computing in a more general sense. Examples of these would include error propagation, national transfer formats, data standards, copyright law, data modelling and statistical analyses. We have usually indicated where information on these can be obtained. It is also worth pointing out that nearly everything discussed in this Paper could apply to fisheries management which might be necessary on larger inland lakes.
As a means of providing a complete overview of this Technical Paper, Figure 1. The Paper itself commences with a detailed examination of why the management of fisheries could best be looked at as a spatial problem. Basically this means that many of the problems which the industry faces are a result of some manifestation of spatial inequity, i. We then briefly discuss the emergence of GIS in terms of what it is, how it developed and how it could be useful.
Chapter 2 is devoted completely to the fundamentally important task of primary data gathering. Without large quantities of accurate data the system simply cannot function. Since the range of data collecting methods is so vast, we can only describe a few of them briefly. The description covers a hierarchy of methods, starting from several manual methods which use no equipment and proceeding right through to complex methods using advanced electronic equipment.
Our next chapter No. This data is held mostly in the form of printed maps, tabular data sets and various digital data sets or databases such as remotely sensed imagery.
We also explore some of the concepts comcerned with computer networking as a data source. For this reason, they typically borrow GIS functionality from the latter e. Irrespective of particular projects of interest, working with geospatial information and GIS requires some level of familiarity with one or several generic GIS platforms. Table 1. Bolstad, P. Calamito, A. ESRI, Geographic information systems and science.
Hoboken, NJ: Wiley; Skip to main content. Technology notes for the water management practitioner: GIS provides both critical input and an invaluable analysis framework for water resources management. A large variety of GIS software platforms exist, ranging from proprietary to open-source programs, from web-based to desktop applications, each with their respective strengths and weaknesses. Web-based GIS applications attract an increasing number of users for their usability and accessibility.
Desktop and LAN, WAN server-based applications for an important segment of the GIS market due to their power and versatility, but ever-increasing computational capabilities in the cloud are closing the gap.
Centralized desktop: a GIS desktop application with limited processing capability is installed on the client side; tools and data are hosted on a server; common with departmental implementations. Hodges Library. Geographic information GI in the context of big data creates new avenues of research related to its organization, access, and use, as outlined in a new book co-authored by Bishop.
In this presentation, Bishop will give an overview of the background and challenges facing the preservation of GI, including:. His research focus is geographic information GI organization, access, and use, as well as the study of GI occupations, education, and training.