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Not applicable to journal renewals. Free Shipping: Applies only to prepaid online orders from US customers. You may choose to pay for rush shipping instead. Packages sent via CanPar. For bulk orders, please contact: info guilford. Add a Note: Optional. The simulations were performed considering subjects, total number of the sample. A total of 1, extractions of random correlation matrices were simulated and we considered the eigenvalue corresponding to the 95th percentile, resulting in a minimum criterion of 2. Also, the R software version 2.

Considering these criteria for extraction, we found 12 factors, which were subjected to analysis by orthogonal rotation varimax , since the oblique rotation, attempted initially, was not justified due to the low magnitude of correlation between the factors lower than.

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Before proceeding to the factor analysis, we verified sampling adequacy for the analysis, using the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin KMO index and the Bartllet's sphericity test. The KMO was. Table 3 presents a summary of the data found in the exploratory factor analysis.

We obtained twelve factors with more than one item and eigenvalues above 2. The same table also presents a summary of the items' factor loadings on factors. Table 3. In Table 3 , the first column refers to the sequence found on the factors. The "loading" column shows the lowest factor loading having a cutoff previously established at.

The next column describes the number of items with factor loading equal or greater than. Finally, the "Predominance PD" column reports what was the predominance of items in that factor in relation to the personality disorder PD that the items represented. Besides, we also verified that each of the factors was marked by features more related to a particular style or pathological personality functioning, as shown in the last column of Table 3. Such a trend does not suggest that each personality style is represented by one dimension, but each dimension should present a greater relevance in relation to the different styles.

The only disorders that were not distinctly represented on a factor were the depressive and negativistic. The items of the former were distributed in the factors 1, 3, and 4 and the latter, in factors 2 and 3.

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Even though we did not recover the items of such disorders in independent dimensions, they were grouped into coherent factors. Continuing the refinement of the scale, items that did not reach the factor loading of. Thus, we kept items that optimized internal consistency for each scale i. We also favored items whose content was appropriate from the theoretical point of view and not imprecise items, and therefore, better operationalized.

Furthermore, a more detailed analysis of the content of the items was conducted to formulate a nomenclature that would capture the general meaning of the items. Table 4 presents the number of items selected by factors, the names of factors considering the set of items that compose them, the total number of items, the coefficient of internal consistency of the factors, and a sample item for each factor.

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  • It is noteworthy that the total number of items composing the instrument was , however, the sum of the items presented in Table 4 results in , since some items are overlapping more than one scale. We chose to keep these items, albeit overlapping, since the qualitative analysis of their contents suggested the adequacy for being kept in more than one scale. Moreover, we calculated the descriptive data of participants' scores on the factors. Table 4.

    Therefore, Factor 1, Dependence , consists of items about beliefs in the individuals' lack of self-trust to make decisions, for believing that he doesn't make things right, depending on others for decision-making. The second factor, Aggression , is related to reactions in which the individual does not consider the other to get what they want, and are inconsequent, often violent. Mood Instability , Factor 3, is represented by a group of items with respect to the tendency to a sad and irritable mood, but also mood oscillations, which make individuals present impulsive and extreme reactions that often generate guilt.


    In the next factor, Eccentricity , items are grouped regarding the absence of pleasure in being with others, difficulty in trusting others, and beliefs of being different from other people, expressing eccentric, and idiosyncratic behaviors. In factor 5, Attention Seeking , items relate to the exaggerated need for attention from others, using mechanisms such as seduction, overreactions, and intensive search for friendships. In Distrust 6 , there are characteristics related to constant worry of being deceived, beliefs that there are always "second intentions", showing preference by what is known, strictness in relationships, and persecutory delusions.

    The seventh factor, Grandiosity , groups items reporting irritability due to lack of recognition of the other, showing an exaggerated need for admiration by others with underlying beliefs of merit and superiority.

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    The Insular factor, number 8, is represented by items reporting the preference by being alone, irritability with taking orders from others, a decreased pleasure with relationships and avoidance of social interaction. The items representing factor 9, Avoidance of Criticism , are about generalized beliefs of incapacity and consequently, that others will humiliate and criticize them.

    In factor 10, Self-sacrifice , the items relate to an exaggerated disregard of the self with evident tendencies to help others. Conscientiousness , factor 11, is related to a need to do things as organized and orderly as possible, with a focus on responsibility and obligations, demonstrating excessive worry, perfectionism, strict rules in relationships, and focus on work duties. Finally, the Impulsiveness factor 12 deals with reactions of impulsivity and carelessness, with a taste for activities involving violence, ease of making excuses and getting involved in problems.

    Regarding internal consistency, 11 scales presented reliability indices greater than or equal to. Also, regarding the descriptive data of the participants in the dimensions, it is possible to observe that virtually all the factors presented minimal scores 1. The present study aimed to developed a dimensional instrument to assess personality disorders based on Millon's theoretical perspective and in the diagnostic categories of DSM-IV-TR axis II, as well as to empirically investigate evidence based on the validity of the internal structure and reliability indices of the scales.

    Furthermore, the dimensions that compose the instrument seem to be in agreement with what is theoretically expected, and it is possible to establish relationships between these dimensions and the personality disorders. On the one hand, this finding indicates that, for most part of the scales, there seems to be a sufficient number of items representing the typical characteristics of each dimension evaluated by the IDCP.

    On the other hand, for certain scales e.

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    Another important fact regarding the validity of the instrument refers to descriptive statistics. As the IDCP attempts to operationalize disorders, its items tend to represent extreme versions of healthy personality characteristics. In a way, the values obtained on the descriptive statistics, means below 2.

    In addition, another indicative of the adequacy of the internal structure for the IDCP is the reliability index, coefficient alpha. This index was satisfactory for almost all dimensions of the instrument, establishing. An exception to that was the Conscientiousness dimension, whose alpha coefficient was equal to. We suggest the use of the final version found in this study consisting of items the sum of items from the factors is , but some items overlap in different dimensions. Future research should continue to evidence the validity of the IDCP, since the verification of the internal structure of the instrument is only a first step towards a more complete understanding of its functioning.

    We should also seek to optimize the reliability index possibly adding new items found for the Conscientiousness dimension, and verify how this dimension and the Attention-Seeking dimension actually assess pathological personality traits. Furthermore, the reliability indices of the factors that showed an uncertain coefficient that is, close to. We also suggest the use of the Item Response Theory IRT , verifying possible impacts on the reliability of the scales due to discrepancies between the level of the latent trait measured by the instrument and the level of the latent trait of the sample.

    An also important limitation of this study may guide the direction of future research using the IDCP. That is, the present sample consisted mainly of people without a diagnosis of personality disorders, and, considering the characteristics assessed by the instrument, it is important that further studies use samples predominantly with pathological personality traits. American Psychological Association. Porto Alegre, RS: Artmed.

    Brown, T. Dimensional versus categorical classification of mental disorders in fifth edition of the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders and beyond. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, , Carvalho, L. Cuevas, L. Details if other :. Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. Robert F. Krueger Editor. Erik Simonsen Editor. This forward-thinking volume grapples with critical questions surrounding the mechanisms underlying mental disorders and the systems used for classifying them. Edited and written by leading international authorities, many of whom are actively involved with the development of DSM-V and ICD, the book integrates biological and psychosocial perspectives.

    It provides balance This forward-thinking volume grapples with critical questions surrounding the mechanisms underlying mental disorders and the systems used for classifying them. It provides balanced analyses of such issues as the role of social context and culture in psychopathology and the pros and cons of categorical versus dimensional approaches to diagnosis.

    Cutting-edge diagnostic instruments and research methods are reviewed. Throughout, contributors highlight the implications of current theoretical and empirical advances for understanding real-world clinical problems and developing more effective treatments. Get A Copy. Hardcover , pages. More Details Other Editions 4. Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about Contemporary Directions in Psychopathology , please sign up.